Multilevel mediation

Mediation analysis: The basics

Mediation is a useful tool for connecting variables into pathways. It extends the idea of a simple association between two variables (let's call them x and y) to a pathway involving three (or more) variables. Let's write the association x predicts y like this: [ x -> y ]. With mediation analysis, you can build a model of associations among three variables, i.e., [ x -> m -> y ]. m is a mediator, a variable that explains some or all of the relationship between x and y.
Mediation models are especially useful for developing models in which an association between two variables is transmitted via a third variable. For example, the effects of a psychological stressor (x) on heart rate (y) may be mediated by activity in brain systems responsible for threat. The stressor activates the brain, and the brain in turn controls the heart.
In mediation analysis, x is called the initial variable. it will often be an experimental variable (IV) that is experimentally manipulated, but it doesn't have to be. y is called the outcome variable, and it is usually the endpoint that one is interested in explaining. m is the mediator, and is usually a variable that is thought to be important for transmitting the effect of x on y, or on the "causal path" from x to y. It is also possible to include multiple initial variables, multiple mediators, and other covariates in such models. The broader family that the [ x -> m -> y ] model belongs to is called path models.
Here are some other examples. Exercise may improve memory via neurogenesis. Exercise causes new neurons to be generated in the brain, which helps the brain form new memories more efficiently. here, x is exercise, m is neurogenesis, and y is memory. Smoking (x) may lead to premature death (y) via increased rates of cancer (m).
A note on causality. Mediation models of the type we explore here (and path models more generally) are build on linear regression, with the same assumptions and limitations of other linear models. It is a directional model: As with a standard multiple regression model, we are explaining y as a function of x and m. And, as with standard regression, the presence of a statistical association does not provide direct information on causality. The observed relationships could, in principle, be caused by other variables that are not included in the model (i.e., lurking variables or common causes), and/or the direction of causality can be reversed from how you've formulated it in the model. Experimental manipulation of variables can provide stronger evidence for causal associations, and sometimes both x and m are experimentally manipulated. However, when variables are observed rather than manipulated, statistical associations very rarely provide strong information about causality.

Multilevel mediation

In the standard mediation model, each of X, M, and Y are vectors with one observation per person. Thus, the individual participant is the unit of observation. When this is the case, we'll call this a single-level mediation. 99% or so of the mediation analyses in the literature are single-level models. For example, X can include a vector of individuals who are either smokers (coded as 1) or non-smokers (coded as -1), and we include measures of both the incidence of cancer (M) and survival time (Y) for each person.
What happens if we have repeated observations of X, Y, and M within a person? This allows us to estimate the Path a, Path b, and a*b effects within each person. This allows each person "to serve as their own control", and eliminates a number of person-level confounds and noise. For example, in our cancer example above, people will likely vary in their diet, and diet could be correlated with smoking, introducing a potential confound (or "3rd variable") and at the least an additional source of uncontrolled noise. In a mulitlevel model, we can estimate the effect within-person, and test the significance of the path coefficients across individuals, treating participant as a random effect. This reduces the chances that the mediation effect is related to a 3rd variable, and allows us to generalize the effect across a population with a range of diets (and other person-level characteristics). This can often dramatically increase the power and validity of a mediation model.
In addition, with multilevel mediation, we can include person-level covariates in the model as well. For example, we can test whether diet moderates (influences) the effects of smoking on cancer (Path a), the effects of cancer on mortality (Path b), or the mediation (a*b) effect. This is called moderated mediation. Thus, multilevel mediation allows us to include two kinds of variables in the same model: within-person variables that are measured for each person, and between-person (or person-level) variables that are measured once for a person. We can make inferences on the within-person mediation effect and test whether it generalizes over or is moderated by person-level characteristics.
Single-level (standard) and multilevel mediation with all of these variations is implemented in the Multilevel Mediation and Moderation (M3) Matlab Toolbox.

Brain mediators and mediation effect parametric mapping (MEPM)

Multilevel mediation models are fairly rare in the social sciences, but in fMRI studies of cognitive and affective tasks, they are a natural fit. We often manipulate tasks and observe both brain activity and behavioral responses (e.g., ratings or performance) within-person across time. This makes multilevel mediation a natural fit to analyze experimental effects on the brain and their relationships with behavior in a single model. We can even add person-level characteristics like patient status or personality into the model as well.
The mediation model we'll explore in this tutorial looks like this:
mediation1.png
X M Y
X represents the task condition -- e.g., in our example below, the temperature of a hot stimulus applied to the skin. It is often coded with 1 or -1 ("effects coding") when there are two conditions, but can be coded with linear contrast codes or other numerical values when there are more than two conditions. M represents fMRI activity. Y represents a behavioral outcome of interest.
Here, for our neuroimaging multilevel mediation tutorial, we'll extend this in two ways:
  1. We'll search over brain voxels, testing each voxel in an fMRI study as a mediator one at a time. We'll then save maps of how strong the mediation effect is.
  2. We'll change the unit of observation from the participant to conditions within-participant. This is possible because in fMRI, we typically we vary X within-person by including different experimental tasks that might impact M and Y. We can also observe fMRI acitivity (M) and behavior (Y) as they vary within-person. When we model these within-person relationships and perform statistical tests to generalize the associations to a population of individuals, we are performing multilevel mediation.
The Multilevel Mediation and Moderation (M3) Matlab Toolbox will perform both single- and multilevel mediation. The function mediation.m can operate on any type of input data (behavior, psychosocial measures, physiology, brain, genetics, etc.), and will run both single and multilevel mediation depending on the input data.
The toolbox also has special functions for running mediation on each voxel in a neuroimaging dataset (single or multilevel) and saving maps of mediation effects:
mediation_brain % for single-level mediation
mediation_brain_multilevel % for multilevel mediation

About the dataset

This dataset includes 33 participants, each with brain responses to six levels
of heat (44.3 - 49.3 degrees C in one degree increments, which generally span the range from non-painful to painful). For each participant, a .nii image is included with 6 brain volumes (one per intensity level, in ascending order). These model the average activity during painful stimulation, assuming the standard canonical HRF, and were estimated using first-level models in SPM8. A metadata file includes the temperature and average pain rating per subject per temperature.
Aspects of this data appear in these papers, among others:
Wager, T.D., Atlas, L.T., Lindquist, M.A., Roy, M., Choong-Wan, W., Kross, E. (2013). An fMRI-Based Neurologic Signature of Physical Pain. The New England Journal of Medicine. 368:1388-1397
(This study is Study 2 of the paper).
Woo, C. -W., Roy, M., Buhle, J. T. & Wager, T. D. (2015). Distinct brain systems mediate the effects of nociceptive input and self-regulation on pain. PLOS Biology. 13(1):e1002036. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002036
Lindquist, Martin A., Anjali Krishnan, Marina López-Solà, Marieke Jepma, Choong-Wan Woo, Leonie Koban, Mathieu Roy, et al. 2017. Group-Regularized Individual Prediction: Theory and Application to Pain. NeuroImage. 145:274-287.
Stephan Geuter, Elizabeth A Reynolds Losin, Mathieu Roy, Lauren Y Atlas, Liane Schmidt, Anjali Krishnan, Leonie Koban, Tor D Wager, Martin A Lindquist, Multiple Brain Networks Mediating Stimulus–Pain Relationships in Humans, Cerebral Cortex, Volume 30, Issue 7, July 2020, Pages 4204–4219.
The dataset is available in CANlab Core toolbox under "Sample_Datasets/Woo_2015_PlosBio_BMRK3_pain_6levels". BMRK3 is the CANlab study code for this study. It was collected by Mathieu Roy, Jason Buhle, and research assistants in the CANlab.

Using the dataset to demonstrate mulitlevel mediation

This dataset provides a lightweight, minimally viable dataset to demonstrate multilevel mediation. Usually, a mulitlevel mediation dataset would include more than 6 images per person -- for example, it might include trial-level data (as in Atlas et al. 2010, 2014; Koban et al. 2019) or full time series data (as in Wager et al. 2009).
Here, the variable temperatures will serve as the initial variable (X), ratings will serve as the outcome variable (Y), and brain images, whose names are stored in a variable called single_trial_image_names, will serve as the mediator (M). Thus, the analysis will search over brain voxels and test whether each voxel's response during pain mediates the effects of temperature on pain ratings:
[temp (X) -> brain activity during pain (M) -> pain ratings (Y)]
The function mediation_brain_multilevel will take in a set of image names in place of either X, Y, or M.
The format is that each of X, Y, and M are cell arrays, with one cell per subject. Each cell should contain either a column vector of values (for numeric variables) or a list of image names or 4D image for brain image inputs.

Load the dataset

Locally or from the web
metadata_file = which('bmrk3_6levels_metadata.mat');
metadata_file
metadata_file = '/Users/torwager/Documents/GitHub/CanlabCore/CanlabCore/Sample_datasets/Woo_2015_PlosBio_BMRK3_pain_6levels/bmrk3_6levels_metadata.mat'
if isempty(metadata_file)
disp('You need the dataset Woo_2015_PlosBio_BMRK3_pain_6levels on your Matlab path.')
disp('This is in the CANlab Core toolbox.')
error('Check path and files.')
end
load(metadata_file);
% Re-find local path names for brain images
M = single_trial_image_names;
dir_old = fileparts(M{1});
dir_new = fileparts(metadata_file);
for i = 1:length(M), M{i} = strrep(M{i}, dir_old, dir_new); end
X = temperatures;
Y = ratings;
whos X Y M
Name Size Bytes Class Attributes M 1x33 12342 cell X 1x33 5016 cell Y 1x33 5016 cell

Set up and run multilevel mediation

Most of the heavy lifting is done here. There are three steps:
  1. Create a mediation directory to save output, and go there
  2. Configure setup options in a SETUP structure
  3. Run mediation (this will save files to disk)
Note: The mask will likely have to be resliced (resampled and interpolated) to match the origin and dimensions of the brain dataset.
mkdir mediation_results
cd mediation_results
SETUP.mask = which('gray_matter_mask.nii');
SETUP.preprocX = 0;
SETUP.preprocY = 0;
SETUP.preprocM = 0;
% mediation_brain_multilevel(X, Y, M, [other inputs])
mediation_brain_multilevel(temperatures, ratings, single_trial_image_names, SETUP);
mediation_brain_multilevel saves a SETUP file with the input variables and estimated results maps for all the relevant effects. You can save the files in directory and use them to make tables and figures of results at any time later. Here are some of the key files:
X-M_effect.img Map of average slope coefficients for Path a
M-Y_effect.img Map of average slope coefficients for Path b
X-M-Y_effect.img Map of average slope coefficients for Path a*b (mediation effect)
X-M_indiv_effect.img 4D image wtih individual slope coefficients for Path a (one image per participant)
M-Y_indiv_effect.img 4D image wtih individual slope coefficients for Path b (one image per participant)
X-M-Y_indiv_effect.img 4D image wtih individual slope coefficients for Path a*b (one image / participant)
X-M_ste.img Standard error for Path a (across participants)
M-Y_ste, X-M-Y_ste.img Standard errors for Path b and a*b effects (across participants)
X-M_indiv_ste.img 4D image wtih individual standard errors for Path a (one image per participant)
M-Y_indiv_ste.img, X-M-Y... Individual standard errors for Path b and a*b (one image per participant
X-M_pvals.img Map of P-values for Path a
M-Y_pvals.img, X-M-Y... Maps of P-values for Paths b and a*b
Once results scripts have been run (e.g., with mediation_brain_results; see below), additional output will be generated. This includes printouts of slice montages (.png graphics) and tables with thresholded results. An example of these looks like this:
M-Y_pvals_005_k5_noprune_log.txt
M-Y_pvals_005_k5_noprune_results.txt

Get and save results

Once you've completed a successful run of mediation_brain_multilevel, you can go to the results directory and examine the results. The goal of this section is to construct and save:
We can get results on significant regions for each of the Path a, Path b, and Path a*b (mediation effect) maps.
For a single-level mediation, the thresholded Path a*b map (showing signifcant voxels) will always include a subset of the voxels significant in the Path a and Path b maps.
For a multilevel mediation, this is not necessarily the case. This is because the significance of the a*b mediation effect is based on the strength of the average a effect, the average b effect, and the covariance between them. This is explained by Kenny, Korchmaros, and Bolger (2003), a seminal paper on mulitlevel mediation. It's discussed in relation to brain maps in Atlas et al. 2010.
This means that you might be interested in looking at each of the maps, as each provides a different and complimentary piece of information.
Note: You don't need to have run the mediation in the same Matlab session to use these results functions. You just need to be in a valid mediation results directory with saved maps.
Note: To extract data from significant clusters (regions), save it in clusters structures (see below), and generate the most complete tables of mediation results, you do need to have access to the original data files used to run the mediation. Their names are stored (for this example, with brain images as mediator) in SETUP.data.M. If you move the images or results directory, you may need to replace this field with the updated file names for full functionality.

Choose a threshold

We'll need to specify a significance threshold, entered as a P-value threshold. The function below chooses a threshold that satisfies FDR on average across the Path a, b, and a*b maps.
There are other thresholding options as well. We could also choose an uncorrected P-value threshold to be entered into the mediation_brain_results function below.
SETUP = mediation_brain_corrected_threshold('fdr');
Calculating FDR threshold across family of tests in these images: X-M_pvals.img M-Y_pvals.img X-M-Y_pvals.img Total p-values: 586836 FDR threshold is 0.003370 Saving in SETUP.fdr_p_thresh
This gives us an equivalent P-value to satisfy FDR-corrected at q < 0.05 on average across the 3 maps, which is stored in SETUP.fdr_p_thresh. It will be Inf if there is not enough signal to meet the threshold.
Note: P-values are always two-tailed, unlike SPM P-values, which are one-tailed. So P < 0.002 here is equivalent to P < 0.001 using SPM.
Multi-thresholding and 'pruned' significant regions
We can choose a series of P-value thresholds if we want to save clusters ('blobs') where at least one voxel meets the most stringent threshold, but show continguous voxels in the cluster down to the most liberal threshold. We call this 'pruned' clusters, because we're thresholding a liberal display threshold but 'pruning' the set of significant regions so that each region has at least one voxel at the most stringent (often corrected) threshold. This can be useful for display and in particular for showing the extent of regions around the most stringent value. For example, entering these options into mediation_brain_results will show us clusters where at least one voxel is FDR-corrected at q < 0.05 (map-wise), but we'll see the extent of each blob down to p < 0.005 as long as there are 3 contiguous voxels at that threshold (that are also contiguous with FDR-corrected results) and down to p < 0.01 uncorrected as long as there are at least 10 contiguous voxels.
mediation_brain_results(..., 'thresh', [Inf .005 .01], 'size', [1 3 10], 'fdrthresh', .05, ...)
Other preliminary stuff
Let's define some variables that we can use to print nice headers in the report:
dashes = '----------------------------------------------';
printstr = @(dashes) disp(dashes);
printhdr = @(str) fprintf('\n\n%s\n%s\n%s\n%s\n%s\n\n', dashes, dashes, str, dashes, dashes);

Results for Path a

The code below generates results for Path a, the effects of stimulus temperature on brain activity, within-person, estimated across the 6 temperatures and 6 brain images per participant. Results and P-values reflect population inference, treating participant as a random effect.
mediation_brain_results can accept various input options. As with all functions, help <function_name> (e.g., help mediation_brain_results) will explain the full set of options. Here, we'll use the average FDR-corrected threshold from above, and keywords that generate slices and tables, and save results output. The output will be shown on the screen, printed to the command window, and saved in files in the mediation results directory. The output variables clpos, etc. are clusters structures that can be used in interactive follow-up analyses and plots (we'll explain these below).
printhdr('Path a: Temperature to Brain Response')
---------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------- Path a: Temperature to Brain Response ---------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------
mediation_brain_results('a', 'thresh', ...
SETUP.fdr_p_thresh, 'size', 5, ...
'slices', 'tables', 'names', 'save');
Will show slices. Will print tables. Saving log file: X-M_pvals_003_k5_noprune_log.txt Other key results in: X-M_pvals_003_k5_noprune_results.txt Will also save figures of slice montages if 'slices' requested. iimg_multi_threshold viewer ===================================================== Showing positive or negative: pos Overlay is: /Users/torwager/Documents/GitHub/CanlabCore/CanlabCore/canlab_canonical_brains/Canonical_brains_surfaces/SPM8_colin27T1_seg.img No mask specified in iimg_multi_threshold Entered p-value image? : Yes Height thresholds:0.0034 Extent thresholds: 5 Show only contiguous with seed regions: No Warning: p-values in cl.Z will not give valid spm_max subclusters. log(1/p) saved in output cl.Z field.
iimg_multi_threshold viewer ===================================================== Showing positive or negative: neg Overlay is: /Users/torwager/Documents/GitHub/CanlabCore/CanlabCore/canlab_canonical_brains/Canonical_brains_surfaces/SPM8_colin27T1_seg.img No mask specified in iimg_multi_threshold Entered p-value image? : Yes Height thresholds:0.0034 Extent thresholds: 5 Show only contiguous with seed regions: No Warning: p-values in cl.Z will not give valid spm_max subclusters. log(1/p) saved in output cl.Z field.
Extracting image data for significant clusters. Extracting data for multilevel mediation 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 Extracting image data for significant clusters. Extracting data for multilevel mediation 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033
Warning: cl2region:no comparable field name
Warning: cl2region:no comparable field imnames
Warning: cl2region:no comparable field snr_avgts
Warning: cl2region:no comparable field snr
Warning: cl2region:no comparable field numpos
Warning: cl2region:no comparable field power80
Warning: cl2region:no comparable field name
Warning: cl2region:no comparable field imnames
Warning: cl2region:no comparable field snr_avgts
Warning: cl2region:no comparable field snr
Warning: cl2region:no comparable field numpos
Warning: cl2region:no comparable field power80
Summary of output images: X-M_pvals.img Results clusters clpos and clneg are returned for the LAST image in this set. Printing Tables. Z field contains: Mediation a effect (shown in maxstat) Name index x y z corr voxels volume_mm3 maxstat snr_avgts(d) minsnr maxsnr numpos power80 partialr_with_y partialr_p Za_max Pa_max Zb_max Pb_max Zab_max Pab_max num_sig_voxels Bstem_Med_R 1 2 -38 -44 NaN 35 280 7.84 0.03 -0.85 0.69 2 19846 NaN NaN 3.54 0.0004 1.74 0.08 1.06 0.29 Multiple regions 2 -10 -58 -24 NaN 5051 40408 19.60 0.35 -3.87 2.44 3 129 NaN NaN 5.93 0.0000 2.81 0.0050 2.02 0.04 Multiple regions 3 6 -14 -4 NaN 1279 10232 17.31 1.21 -2.26 3.58 6 12 NaN NaN 5.54 0.0000 2.29 0.02 2.03 0.04 Multiple regions 4 50 -8 12 NaN 6551 52408 23.83 2.29 -1.64 4.84 6 5 NaN NaN 6.59 0.0000 1.55 0.12 1.32 0.19 Multiple regions 5 -52 -12 10 NaN 4392 35136 21.51 1.04 -3.82 7.12 5 16 NaN NaN 6.23 0.0000 2.22 0.03 2.93 0.0034 Thal_Hythal 6 -12 -2 -14 NaN 9 72 7.59 0.89 0.72 0.97 5 22 NaN NaN 3.48 0.0005 2.79 0.0052 1.56 0.12 Caudate_Ca_L 7 -10 8 2 NaN 14 112 7.72 0.18 -0.03 1.04 5 522 NaN NaN 3.51 0.0004 0.85 0.40 1.48 0.14 Ctx_V6_L 8 -14 -74 24 NaN 12 96 6.97 -0.10 -0.33 0.23 1 1573 NaN NaN 3.31 0.0009 1.85 0.06 0.61 0.54 Multiple regions 9 10 -4 52 NaN 7215 57720 27.06 1.25 -3.37 8.88 5 12 NaN NaN 7.05 0.0000 2.26 0.02 1.69 0.09 Ctx_4_R 10 40 -16 38 NaN 27 216 7.64 0.23 -0.03 0.51 4 296 NaN NaN 3.49 0.0005 1.32 0.19 0.57 0.57 Ctx_7AL_L 11 -22 -48 70 NaN 243 1944 11.07 0.32 -0.56 1.14 3 157 NaN NaN 4.32 0.0000 0.05 0.96 -0.2962 0.77 Z field contains: Mediation a effect (shown in maxstat) Name index x y z corr voxels volume_mm3 maxstat snr_avgts(d) minsnr maxsnr numpos power80 partialr_with_y partialr_p Za_max Pa_max Zb_max Pb_max Zab_max Pab_max num_sig_voxels Multiple regions 1 -54 -10 -20 NaN 1210 9680 13.06 -0.16 -1.84 2.15 4 613 NaN NaN -4.7418 0.0000 -0.2160 0.83 0.74 0.46 Ctx_TE1a_R 2 60 -8 -20 NaN 573 4584 12.74 -0.36 -5.75 0.94 2 127 NaN NaN -4.6759 0.0000 -1.8298 0.07 1.62 0.11 Ctx_PeEc_R 3 28 -24 -24 NaN 553 4424 13.79 -3.51 -5.76 0.14 0 3 NaN NaN -4.8868 0.0000 -1.3782 0.17 1.36 0.17 Ctx_EC_L 4 -24 -12 -26 NaN 301 2408 14.79 -1.25 -1.86 0.48 0 12 NaN NaN -5.0799 0.0000 -1.6085 0.11 0.97 0.33 Ctx_PHA3_L 5 -32 -34 -20 NaN 179 1432 12.26 0.13 -1.04 2.26 3 894 NaN NaN -4.5756 0.0000 -0.7757 0.44 1.16 0.25 Ctx_OFC_R 6 6 24 -22 NaN 15 120 7.05 -0.29 -0.38 -0.15 4 191 NaN NaN -3.3314 0.0009 -0.8806 0.38 1.50 0.13 Ctx_V2_L 7 -22 -88 -14 NaN 56 448 8.22 -0.33 -1.17 0.52 3 145 NaN NaN -3.6425 0.0003 -0.2919 0.77 0.33 0.75 Ctx_a47r_L 8 -42 50 -10 NaN 356 2848 10.47 -0.59 -1.69 1.93 1 47 NaN NaN -4.1866 0.0000 -1.2592 0.21 0.77 0.44 Multiple regions 9 -6 50 4 NaN 3210 25680 16.38 -0.65 -2.35 1.27 2 40 NaN NaN -5.3737 0.0000 -1.4417 0.15 1.57 0.12 Ctx_PH_L 10 -42 -70 -6 NaN 183 1464 9.98 1.55 0.14 2.74 6 8 NaN NaN -4.0737 0.0000 -1.2684 0.20 1.34 0.18 Multiple regions 11 44 -70 28 NaN 2027 16216 15.26 -0.75 -5.03 1.64 2 30 NaN NaN -5.1683 0.0000 -2.0574 0.04 1.74 0.08 Cau_R 12 14 26 -4 NaN 13 104 6.16 -0.12 -0.26 0.32 4 1087 NaN NaN -3.0725 0.0021 -0.1474 0.88 0.85 0.39 Caudate_Ca_R 13 14 22 10 NaN 56 448 7.89 -0.31 -0.47 -0.13 4 171 NaN NaN -3.5587 0.0004 -1.1738 0.24 1.58 0.11 Multiple regions 14 2 -52 30 NaN 2308 18464 14.17 -0.49 -2.44 1.92 2 67 NaN NaN -4.9607 0.0000 0.31 0.76 0.52 0.60 V_Striatum_L 15 -10 16 12 NaN 33 264 7.87 -0.26 -0.38 -0.02 3 241 NaN NaN -3.5523 0.0004 0.11 0.92 1.06 0.29 Ctx_V4_L 16 -28 -84 16 NaN 158 1264 9.60 -0.18 -1.48 0.89 2 507 NaN NaN -3.9843 0.0001 -1.1468 0.25 0.54 0.59 Ctx_PGs_L 17 -44 -68 30 NaN 1147 9176 13.84 -1.01 -1.85 0.80 1 17 NaN NaN -4.8972 0.0000 -1.2226 0.22 0.48 0.63 Ctx_1_L 18 -66 -6 28 NaN 8 64 6.58 -0.97 -1.22 -0.71 1 19 NaN NaN -3.1985 0.0014 -0.6720 0.50 1.19 0.23 Ctx_IPS1_L 19 -26 -70 28 NaN 6 48 6.07 -1.38 -1.80 -0.79 0 10 NaN NaN -3.0459 0.0023 0.14 0.89 0.66 0.51 Ctx_3b_L 20 -38 -26 52 NaN 929 7432 14.59 -1.00 -3.42 0.20 1 18 NaN NaN -5.0417 0.0000 -1.3769 0.17 1.45 0.15 Ctx_8Av_R 21 30 26 50 NaN 690 5520 12.79 -0.85 -2.86 0.57 1 24 NaN NaN -4.6865 0.0000 -2.2102 0.03 1.45 0.15 Ctx_LIPd_R 22 28 -58 42 NaN 18 144 6.40 0.33 -0.26 0.79 4 146 NaN NaN -3.1458 0.0017 -0.0682 0.95 0.38 0.71 Ctx_PGs_L 23 -30 -74 46 NaN 7 56 6.38 -0.94 -1.07 -0.79 2 20 NaN NaN -3.1382 0.0017 -1.5494 0.12 0.88 0.38 Appending clusters in cl_X-M_pvals_003_k5_noprune
Saving image of slices: orth_X-M_pvals_003_k5_noprune_coronal.png
Saving image of slices: orth_X-M_pvals_003_k5_noprune_sagittal.png